Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Are (1) Overindulged: Indicators of Overindulgence Scale, (2) Overindulgence: Parental Overindulgence Assessment Scale, and (3) the Bredehoft-Slinger Delayed Gratification Scale in the public domain and available for use?

A: The authors hold the US copyright to each of the three above aforementioned scales and they are not in the public domain. However, they are available for researchers to use for non-commercial research purposes.  Please keep us posted on your findings.

Q: Which scales are available for research?

A: The following 3 scales:

Overindulged: Indicators of Overindulgence Scale (OIOS) is a 14-item instrument designed to measure parental overindulgence from the point of view of the child (of any age). Overindulged uses a weighted scoring system that produces an aggregate score and three sub-scale scores: (1) Too Much (too many clothes, privileges, toys, activities, and entertainment); (2) Over-nurture (doing things for the child, and over-loving); and (3) Soft structure (no chores, too much freedom, allowed to dominate the family, not taught skills, no rules, rules were not enforced). Scoring procedure, reliability, validity, and factor structure for sub-scales are fully described in the manual.

Overindulgence: Parental Overindulgence Assessment Scale (OPOAS) is a 30-item instrument designed to measure parental overindulgence from the viewpoint of the parent. Parents respond to each question on a 5-item Likert scale. Overindulgence uses a scoring system that produces an aggregate overindulgence score and sub-scale scores for three types of overindulgence: Too much, Over-nurture, and Soft-structure.

This scale assesses parents’ overindulgent attitudes and behaviors toward their children. A high aggregate score indicates the parent overindulges his/her child(ren). A moderate aggregate score suggests the parent overindulges his/her child(ren) at moderate levels. And a low aggregate score suggest the parent does not overindulge his/her child(ren).

Bredehoft-Slinger Delayed Gratification Scale (BSDGS) is a 22-item instrument designed to measure a participant’s ability to delay gratification. Participants respond to questions on a 7 point Likert scale. The BSDGS produces an aggregate score and three subscale scores: (1) Impulsivity; (2) Task Completion; and (3) Anger/Frustration. This scale assesses the respondent’s attitudes and behaviors as an adult. A low aggregate score “suggests the individual is an Instant Gratifier” and does not have the ability to delay gratification. A high aggregate score“ indicates the individual is a Patient Postponer” who has a high amount of the ability to delay or postpone gratification.

Q: Where do I get the (1) Overindulged: Indicators of Overindulgence Scale (OIOS); (2) Overindulgence: Parental Overindulgence Assessment Scale (OPOAS); and (3) Bredehoft-Slinger Delayed Gratification Scale (BSDGS)?

A: If you are interested in using the OIOS, the OPOAS, or the BSDGS for research purposes, please download the corresponding form below, fill it out, sign it and send it to the lead author either by email or snail mail. By completing this form you will let us know a little more about who you are and why you want to use the measure. All information will be kept strictly confidential.

(1) Overindulged: Indicators of Overindulgence Scale (OIOS)

(2) Overindulgence: Parental Overindulgence Assessment Scale (OPOAS): Please email 

      Dr. David Bredehoft:

(3) Bredehoft-Slinger Delayed Gratification Scale (BSDGS)

© David J. Bredehoft, Jean Illsley Clarke & Connie Dawson 2004-2022;